A technique called angioplasty is used to clear blocked coronary arteries caused by coronary artery disease. Without requiring open heart surgery, it restores blood flow to the heart muscle. In an emergency situation, such as a heart attack, angioplasty can be performed. If a cardiologist has a strong suspicion that you have heart problems, it can also be done as emergency treatment. Another name for angioplasty is percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
A long, thin tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel and directed to the blocked coronary artery during angioplasty. At the end of the catheter is a small balloon. The balloon is inflated at the heart artery’s constricted portion once the catheter has been inserted. By pressing the plaque or blood clot against the artery’s walls, more space is created for blood flow.
During the procedure, the doctor uses fluoroscopy. An X-ray "movie"-like a special type of X-ray is called fluoroscopy. As a contrast dye travels through the arteries, it aids the cardiologists in locating the blockages in the heart arteries. This procedure is known as coronary angiography.
Nearly all angioplasty operations now use coronary stents. A stent is a little metal mesh coil that may be expanded. In order to prevent the artery from narrowing or closing once more, it is injected into the freshly opened portion of the artery.
The tissue will begin to cover the stent like a layer of skin once the stent has been implanted. Depending on whether the stent contains a medication coating or not, the stent will have a fully lined tissue within 3 to 12 months. To lessen the "stickiness" of platelets, doctors may prescribe drugs called antiplatelets. Special blood cells called platelets form clumps to stop bleeding. Additionally, the medication can stop blood clots from forming inside of the stent. Your medical team will provide detailed instructions on which medications and for how long they should be taken.
The majority of stents include a medication coating to stop scar tissue from growing inside the stent. Drug-eluting stents are the name for these stents (DES). They discharge medication into the blood vessel, which stops the stent tissue’s excessive growth. This aids in preventing the blood vessel from getting smaller once more. Some stents are known as bare metal stents since they don’t have this medication covering (BMS). Despite the fact that they may have a higher incidence of stenosis, they may not require long-term antiplatelet medication use. In patients with a high risk of bleeding, this may be the preferable stent.
It’s crucial to discuss with your medical staff what to do if you get chest pain after having a stent placed because stents can become obstructed.
When the narrowed artery is in a location that can be reached in this way, angioplasty is performed to restore coronary artery blood flow. Angioplasty cannot be used to treat all cases of coronary artery disease (CAD). Based on your circumstances, your doctor will choose the best course of action for treating your CAD.
Once at home, keep an eye out for any unusual pain, swelling, discoloration, bleeding, or temperature changes at the insertion site. Minor bruising is typical. Inform your medical provider if you see any persistent or significant bleeding at the site that cannot be stopped by a simple dressing.
If your cardiologist utilized a closure device at the site of your insertion, you will be given specific instructions on how to care for the site and the kind of closure device that was used. At the location, there will be a little knot or lump under the skin. That is normal. Over a few weeks, the knot should gradually disappear.
The insertion site needs to be kept dry and clean. You’ll receive particular bathing instructions from your medical team. In general, wait until the skin has healed before using a bathtub, hot tub, or swimming.
It can be suggested that you refrain from engaging in any vigorous activity. When you can resume work and daily activities, your cardiologist will provide you with instructions.
Inform your cardiologist if you have any of the following symptoms:
If you have any symptoms of heart disease, consult one of the best cardiologists in Ranchi, Jharkhand at Orchid Medical Centre. Early medical treatment can increase the chances of survival and save a life. Call us at 9117100100