Genital Tract Cancer: Types and Risk Factors

Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in a woman’s genital tract, it is called genital tract cancer. There are three main types of genital tract cancer: uterine cancer (cancer of the uterus), ovarian cancer (cancer of the ovaries) and cervical cancer (cancer of the cervix). Of all genital tract cancers, only cervical cancer has screening tests that can detect this cancer early. This may make the treatment most effective. Since there is no simple and reliable way to screen for any genital tract cancer except cervical cancer, it is especially important to recognize the warning signs and know if there is anything you can do to reduce your risk.

Uterine cancer (cancer of the uterus)

What is uterine cancer?

Uterine cancer is a general term that describes cancer of your uterus, or womb:

Uterine cancer is of two types of cancer: endometrial cancer (more common) and uterine sarcoma.

Endometrial cancer develops in the endometrium, the inner lining of your uterus. It is one of the most common gynecological cancers. This is cancer affecting your reproductive system.

Uterine sarcoma develops in the myometrium, the muscular wall of your uterus. Uterine sarcoma rarely occurs in women.

Who is at higher risk of uterine cancer?

There are several risk factors for endometrial cancer.

Age, lifestyle and family history:

  • Age: As you age, your chances of developing uterine cancer increase. Most uterine cancers occur after the age of 50.
  • High animal fat in the diet: A high-fat diet can increase your risk of several cancers, including uterine cancer.
  • Family history: Some parents carry a genetic mutation (change) for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). It increases the risk for several types of cancer, including endometrial cancer.

other conditions:

  • Diabetes: This disease is often related to obesity, a cancer risk factor.
  • Obesity (excess body weight): Some hormones are converted to estrogen by adipose tissue, which increases the risk of uterine cancer.
  • Diseases of the ovaries: Women who have ovarian tumors have high estrogen levels and low progesterone levels. These hormone changes can increase the risk of uterine cancer.

Menstrual and reproductive history:

  • Early Menstruation: If you have had your period by the age of 12. The earlier it begins, the higher your risk of uterine cancer may increase. This is because of your uterus’s Exposure to estrogen for more years.
  • Late menopause: Similarly if menopause starts after 50 years of age, which is after its normal age, then its risk also increases.Your uterus is exposed to estrogen for a long time.
  • Long menstrual periods.
  • Not getting pregnant: Women who have not become pregnant have a higher risk because of the increased exposure to estrogen.

Ovarian Cancer (Ovarian Cancer)

What is ovarian cancer?

Cancer develops when cells in your body start growing abnormally. It can happen in any area of ​​the body. When this abnormal growth occurs in the ovaries, it is called ovarian cancer.

Who is at higher risk of ovarian cancer?

  • Having a family history of ovarian cancer (other women in your family may have the disease) or have a gene mutation (BRCA1 or BRCA 2) be hereditary
  • never got pregnant
  • suffering from endometriosis,
  • suffering from breast, uterine or colorectal cancer

As you get older, your risk of developing ovarian cancer also increases.

Another risk factor is Lynch syndrome. This disorder tends to run in families and may increase the risk of developing colon cancer. Lynch syndrome is associated with several other types of cancer. If you have Lynch syndrome, it may increase your risk of developing other cancers.

Cervical cancer

What is Cervical Cancer?

Cervical cancer begins on the surface of your cervix. This happens when cells in your cervix begin to transform into precancerous cells. Not all precancerous cells will turn into cancer, but finding these problematic cells and treating them before they replace them is important for preventing cervical cancer.

Who is at higher risk of cervical cancer?

In many cases, some risk factors for cervical cancer can be avoided, while others are not within your control. There are some risk factors under your control:

  • Screening history: People who have not had regular Pap tests are at increased risk of cervical cancer.
  • HPV infection: Some types of HPV are associated with cervical cancer. Reducing the risk of HPV can also reduce the risk of cervical cancer.
  • Sexual history: Having sex before the age of 18 and having multiple sexual partners puts you at higher risk of HPV infection and chlamydia. Preventing these diseases reduces the risk of cervical cancer.
  • Smoking: Cigarette smoking increases the risk of cervical cancer.
  • HIV infection: People who are infected with HIV have a higher than-average risk of developing cervical cancer.
  • Birth control pills: There is evidence that long-term use of oral contraceptives may increase your risk of cervical cancer.
  • Multiple children: Having three or more complete pregnancies can increase the risk of developing cervical cancer.
  • Having a weak immune system: Having a weak immune system makes your body unable to fight off infections.

Being diagnosed with cancer can be shocking and scary. Discuss any questions and concerns you may have with your gynecologist. Understand your diagnosis and treatment plan. Having friends and family to support you during this time can help boost your morale in coping with this terrible disease. Diagnosis of this terrible disease and early detection of irregular cells in your genital tract is important for its treatment. You can reduce the chances of having genital tract cancer by regularly visiting your gynaecologist and having safe sex.

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